The "action-words" of the sacred originals enliven and enlighten personal engagement while reading the biblical text. Original verb tenses generate the motion to "impulse" deeper understandings as one reads along with the embedded symbols. They communicate "verbal texturing" with full-orbed meanings that reveal how the original text is action-packed (a feature often obscured or deleted in translation).
These delicate nuances are sometimes brought out in translation through "helping" ("auxiliary") words. But these are rarely supplied because they make for cumbersome reading. Their dimensional meanings however are instantly transparent via the "text mark-ups" in The Discovery Bible.
~ (Greek present tense) – constant or continuous (progressive) action, envisioned as an ongoing process.
~! and ~\! (Greek present imperative and negated present imperative) – two other forms of the Greek present "tense" – likewise always express process, ongoing action.
✓ (Greek aorist tense) – complete action, looking to the point-of-closure (as indicated by the context).
✓! and ✓\! (Greek aorist imperative and negated aorist imperative) similarly convey completeness ("closure"), presenting action at its particular point-of-fulfillment (as envisioned in the context).
➠ (Greek perfect tense) – action whose significance (effect) lingers on with an important existing result (discerned only from the context, not the Greek perfect tense itself).
xxx (Greek imperfect tense) – "video-action," dramatically "re-enacted" as originally prolonged or repeated.
The Greek present tense conveys repeated (progressive) seeking, thinking, and repenting (Ac 17:27, 29, 30). The aorist (Ac 17:27) looks to the "point of (effective) closure" regarding the "groping and finding" (as people seek salvation).
The Greek perfect tense (Ac 17:26, "determined") underlines its abiding significance (God planning out all the physical scenes of history). This extension (ongoing lesson) was perceived by their poets (Ac 17:28).
1 Jn 4:17
The Greek perfect tense stresses the existing result (lingering effect) of perfected love (1 Jn 4:17) – extended to how it bears at the judgment seat of Christ. Here faithful believers will continuously hear "well done" (over-and-over again) for doing faith-works (cf. Rev 19:7-9, 22:12). These are done in the power of God's love, developed in its fuller stages in committed believers.
"Discovery-window 2": Original word-meanings
The HELPS word-studies share the fuller meanings of God's words – helping users to study word-by-word. The interactive "click-to-discover" discussions cover all the "concept-words" of the NT (about 2,200) and their original (root, proper) meanings, and how they significantly contour the "lexical texture" of a passage. These original word-meanings ("beyond-translation nuances") when applied to individual contexts evoke wonder by meditating on the Word . . . word-by-word.
1.Bible words often possess multiplicity of meaning that opens a world of discovery. All the word-choices of Scripture are literally "breathed-out-by-God" (2315/theopneustos, 2 Tim 3:16) and inspire thought-provoking-insights. Reflective reading "feels the lexical texture" as meaning-ful sentences combine into cohesive paragraphs which have "progress-in-unity."
2."Hebrew and Greek communicate root-ideas that extend to in-context meanings – an important connection typically reflected throughout the 'original semantic range' of Bible words. This is likewise a lexical trait of ancient languages in general (like literary Arabic)" (G. Archer).
3.In sum, original word-meanings often have implications ("shades of meaning") that are key to understanding the message of a passage. These "beyond-translation meanings" especially apply to "concept-words" (over 2,200 of which are discussed in the HELPS NT word-studies).
[Essentially literal Bible translation is a vital asset to word-studies, probing the multifaceted potential of Scripture terms, word-by-word.]
"Discovery-window 3": Emphasis of the original text
The Bible often emphasizes words by unusual word order in its original text – a very communicative literary feature that conveys the original "tone" ("feel") of a passage. The Scripture writers emphasize words which are "semantic pivot-points" for readers to "stay on track" with their flow of thought. Emphasized words (phrases) are represented in The Discovery Bible by two types of color-highlighted, underlines.
A word is emphasized (in any language) for two chief reasons: to direct where added attention is needed ("focus-emphasis"), shown by <____>; or to re-direct attention to an implied contrast, shown by ____☐ ("contrast-emphasis").
Focus-emphasis in the sacred originals accents key words that readers should define (<__ ) and extend ( __>), so their significance bears in the immediate context. Focus-emphasis ("all it emphatically is") is a "clue-giver" for the over-all (total) meaning of the sentence and paragraph.
Contrast-emphasis ironically stresses what is not directly stated but emphatically intended – pointing to an opposite (implied) meaning that is crucial to that context.
Reflection: Eph 3:18 urges us to "comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth" (NASB), truths conveyed by the grammatical details of Scripture to "rightly divide the word of truth" (cf. 2 Tim 2:15).
Imagine the width and length (horizontal axis) "plotting" fundamental ("backgrounding") information, like temporal referring and the basic (denotative) meanings of words.
[Greek indicatives and participles ("time verbs") here would relate to the horizontal plane along with the core (proper) meanings of Bible terms.]
Imagine the height and depth (vertical axis) "plotting" foregrounding information like: mode-of-action ("aspect-verbs"); overtones of words; and the emphasis of the original text.
Both axes intersect at knowing Christ – see Lk 24:44, Rev 19:10!
Ecc 7:18: "It is good that you grasp one thing and also not let go of the other; for the one who fears God comes forth with both of them" (NASB).